The early history of Cooch Behar has to be sought in the history of Assam. In early times the territory was known as Pragjyotisha, which is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It appears that the western part of the original territory of Pragjyotisha came to be known as Kamarupa in later times. Kamarupa remained under the suzerainty of the Guptas and Palas for some time. According to tradition Kamarupa was conquered by Muslim Army in A.D.1498, but they could not keep the kingdom for long. After the expulsion of the Muslim army the Kamta kingdom was engulfed in anarchy. During that period, rise of Koch king started.
King Viswasimha assumed the title of Kamteshwar. He died in about 1533 and was succeeded by his second son Naranarayan, who was also known as Mallanarayan, after a civil war with Nar Singh who fled to Morung and then to Bhutan. Narnarayan died in 1584 and was succeeded by his son Lakshminarayan who died in 1627. Lakshminarayan was succeeded by his son Birnarayan. In his later years, he had appointed one of his sons Mahinarayan to be Nazir- deo. Birnarayan died in 1632 and was succeeded by his son Prannarayan who reigned till 1666. He constructed or repaired the temple of Baneshwar. Modnarayan succeeded his father. From his reign the influence of Bhutan on Cooch Behar started. He died in 1680 without a male heir. In that situation Vasudevnarayan, the third son of Prannarayan was placed on the throne. He was killed in a skirmish. Then, Mahindranarayan, the great- grandson of Prannarayan was placed on throne. With the death of Mahindranarayan, Rupnarayan came into the power. After a reign of 21 years he died in 1714. His son, Upendranarayan remained till 1763. The boy Devendranarayan was installed as king under the guardianship of Nazir Lalitnarayan. In 1765 Dhairyendranarayan, the son of Kharganarayan (brother of Upendranarayan) was placed on throne. The influence of the Bhutias had increased so much that an office of Bhutan was permanently stationed at Cooch Behar with an army. In later years he was kept in confinement by the Bhutan. His son Dharendranarayan was installed on throne. The East Company was watching with concern the growing power of Bhutias close to their borders. The appeal for help by Nazir was admitted by the company. On April 5, 1773, the treaty between the young Maharaja Dharendranarayan and the East India Company was finalized. Thereafter a peace was concluded between Bhutan and East India Company on April 25, 1774, in consequences of which Dhairyendranarayan was released from captivity. Dharendranarayan died in 1775 and thereafter Dhairyendranarayan took over second time. He died in 1780, leaving his only heir Harendranarayan. Narendranarayan succeeded him after his death. In 1859 a topographical survey of Cooch Behar was made by J.G.Pemberton. Nripendranarayan (one year old) succeeded to the throne of his father in 1863. During his minority the charge of the administration was placed in the hands of a commissioner appointed by the Governor. From that reign the administration of Cooch Behar entered in Modern phase. The first Commissioner was Colonel J.C.Haughton.
The modernization of the administration started by the Commissioners was continued by the Maharaja after assumption of power. On March 6, 1878, Maharaja Nripendranarayan was married to Smt. Sunity Devi, daughter of Keshab Chandra Sen, the Brahma reformer. In 1887 the construction of new palace was completed. Maharaja Nripendranarayan died in 1911 and was succeeded by his eldest son Rajarajendranarayan. He died in 1913 and was succeeded by his brother Jitendranarayan. He married Smt. Indira Devi, daughter of Gaekwad of Baroda. He died in 1921and succeeded by his minor son Jagaddipendranarayan. He was the last Maharaja of the Cooch Behar. The Instrument of Accession was signed and as a result Cooch Behar was transferred to India. The transfer of the Administration to the government of India took place on the 12th day of September 1949, from which date Cooch Behar was ruled as a Chief Commissioner’s Province by Chief Commissioner appointed by the government of India. By an order under section 290A of the Government of India ACT, 1935, Cooch Behar was transferred and merged with the province of West Bengal on 1st January 1950. Since then Cooch Behar is being administered as a district of West Bengal.
History reveals that the ancient territory of Kamrup played a role in the development of the present region of Cooch Behar district in West Bengal. The Allahabad Pillar Inscription of the famous Gupta Emperor Samudragupta mentions about the existence of the Kamrup territory in the 4th century AD. During the 15th century AD, the western part of Kamrup came under the sway of the ‘Khen’ dynasty to usher a new kingdom there known as ‘Kamta’. The present Cooch Behar owes its origin from this ‘Kamta’ land. The ‘Khen’ dynasty is noted for the kings of Niladhvaja, the founder of the dynasty, his son Chakradhvaja and grandson Nilambar (1473-98/99 AD). It is stated by some that the ‘Koch’ dynasty followed the lineage of Nilambar. But the most widely accepted view holds that king Maharaja Viswa Singha was responsible for establishment of an independent ‘Koch’ kingdom in 1510 AD or 1530 AD.
In the beginning, the capital of this kingdom was not static and became stable only when the same was shifted to Cooch Behar. The territory of Cooch Behar was known as ‘Kamta’ even during the period of Maharaja Viswa Singha and his son Maharaja Nara-Narayan. The Mughal forces grabbed certain portion of the ‘Kamta’ kingdom in the middle of the 17th century AD. Later on the accounts of Badshanama, Shah-Jaha-nama, Tarikh-I-Assam and the Alamgirnama ascribed this territory as Cooch Behar. It is, therefore, very much apparent that the ‘Koch’ kingdom was known as ‘Kamta’ even during the middle of the 17the century AD when the Koch kings like Maharaja Viswa Singh, Maharaja Nara Narayan and Maharaja Pran Narayan used the title ‘Kamteswar’ for themselves. The valor of the ‘Koch’ kings is known best by the prides of Maharaja Nara Narayan. He has issued his own coins.
The kings who ruled Cooch Behar till its union with Indian territory and its declaration as a district headquarter of the Province of West Bengal in 1950 are known as Maharaja Viswa Singha, Maharaja Nara Narayan, Maharaja Lakshmi Narayan, Maharaja Bir Narayan, Maharaja Pran Narayan, Maharaja Basudev Narayan, Maharaja Mahindra Narayan, Maharaja Roop Narayan, Maharaja Upendra Narayan, Maharaja Devendra Narayan, Maharaja Dhairjendra Narayan, Maharaja Rajendra Narayan,Maharaja Dharendra Narayan, Maharaja Harendra Narayan, Maharaja Shivendra Narayan, Maharaja Narendra Narayan, Maharaja Nripendra Narayan, Maharaja Rajrajendra Narayan, Maharaja Jitendra Narayan and Maharaja Jagadipendra Narayan.
The history of Cooch Behar dates back to the period of the Pala-Senas (i.e., Circa 11th – 12th century AD) These include sculptures, coins of the Sultanate and the Mughal Periods, temples, mosques of the mediaeval and late mediaeval period. Of the ancient remains, mention may be made of the Rajpat of Gossanimari, Siva Temple of Baneswar and the Palace of Cooch Behar. It is traditionally believed that the huge mound of Rajpat of the Gossanimari village at a distance of 13 kilometer to the west of Dinhata Police Station marks the site of the ancient capital of ‘Kamtapur’ of the ‘Khen’ kings.
The word Rajpat has been derived probably from the Bengali ‘Rajbari’ or ‘Rajbati’ or ‘Rajprasad’. The ‘Khen’ king Nilambar of this Kamtapur Kingdom was defeated in a battle by sultan Hussain Shah of Bengal in 1498 AD. The pomp and glory of Rajpat are now all in ruins under the deposit of huge earth flanked by bare greenaries all around. It is believed that the anicent palatial complex of Kamtapur including the early Kamteswari temple are all lying buried in this mound. This mound is at present protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Name of the Koch Rulers
|1.||BISWASINGHA KAMTESWAR||1522 AD||1554 AD|
|2.||NARA NARAYAN||1554 AD||1587 AD|
|3.||LAKSHMI NARAYAN||1587 AD||1621 AD|
|4.||BIR NARAYAN||1621 AD||1626 AD|
|5.||PRAN NARAYAN||1626 AD||1665 AD|
|6.||MOD NARAYAN||1665 AD||1680 AD|
|7.||BASUDEB NARAYAN||1680 AD||1682 AD|
|8.||MAHINDRA NARAYAN||1682 AD||1693 AD|
|9.||RUP NARAYAN||1693 AD||1714 AD|
|10.||UPENDRA NARAYAN||1714 AD||1763 AD|
|11.||DEBENDRA NARAYAN||1763 AD||1765 AD|
|12.||DAIRJENDRA NARAYAN||1765 AD||1770 AD|
|13.||RAJENDRA NARAYAN||1770 AD||1772 AD|
|14.||DHARENDRA NARAYAN||1772 AD||1775 AD|
|Again||DAIRJENDRA NARAYAN||1775 AD||1783 AD|
|15.||HARENDRA NARAYAN||1801 AD||1839 AD|
|16.||SHIB NARAYAN||1839 AD||1847 AD|
|17.||NARENDRA NARAYAN||1847 AD||1863 AD|
|18.||NRIPENDRA NARAYAN||1863 AD||1911 AD|
|19.||RAJ RAJENDRA NARAYAN||1911 AD||1913 AD|
|20.||JITENDRA NARAYAN||1913 AD||1921 AD|
|21.||JAGADDIPENDRA NARAYAN||1921 AD||1949 AD|
*** From 1st January, 1950 Koch Bihar became a District of West Bengal